Ephesians 5

5:1 Γίνεσθε οὖν μιμηταὶ τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς τέκνα ἀγαπητὰ

Therefore become imitators of God, as beloved children,

2 καὶ περιπατεῖτε ἐν ἀγάπῃ, καθὼς καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς ἠγάπησεν ἡμᾶς καὶ παρέδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν προσφορὰν καὶ θυσίαν τῷ θεῷ εἰς ὀσμὴν εὐωδίας.

And walk in love, just as Christ also loved us and handed himself over on behalf of us as an offering and a sacrifice to God, for the odor of a sweet smell.

3 Πορνεία δὲ καὶ ἀκαθαρσία πᾶσα ἢ πλεονεξία μηδὲ ὀνομαζέσθω ἐν ὑμῖν, καθὼς πρέπει ἁγίοις,

Idolatry and all impurity or covetousness must not be mentioned in you, just as it is befitting to saints,

4 καὶ αἰσχρότης καὶ μωρολογία ἢ εὐτραπελία, ἃ οὐκ ἀνῆκεν, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εὐχαριστία.

And obscenity, and foolish talking or low jesting, which are not becoming, but rather thankfulness.

5 τοῦτο γὰρ ἴστε γινώσκοντες, ὅτι πᾶς πόρνος ἢ ἀκάθαρτος ἢ πλεονέκτης, ὅ ἐστιν εἰδωλολάτρης, οὐκ ἔχει κληρονομίαν ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ.

For knowing, know this, that every idolater or unclean or covetous person, who is idolatrous, does not have an inheritance in the church of Christ and of God.

6 Μηδεὶς ὑμᾶς ἀπατάτω κενοῖς λόγοις· διὰ ταῦτα γὰρ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας.

Let no one deceive you with vain words; for on account of this the anger of God comes upon the sons of disobedience.

7 μὴ οὖν γίνεσθε συμμέτοχοι αὐτῶν·

Therefore do not become joint partakers of theirs;

8 ἦτε γάρ ποτε σκότος, νῦν δὲ φῶς ἐν κυρίῳ· ὡς τέκνα φωτὸς περιπατεῖτε

For you were once darkness, but are now a source of light in the Lord; as children of light, walk.

9 – ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς τοῦ φωτὸς ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ–

— For the fruit of the light is in all goodness, and justice, and truth —

10 δοκιμάζοντες τί ἐστιν εὐάρεστον τῷ κυρίῳ,

Approving what is acceptable to the Lord,

11 καὶ μὴ συγκοινωνεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τοῖς ἀκάρποις τοῦ σκότους, μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ ἐλέγχετε.

And have no fellowship with those unfruitful works of darkness, but rather rebuke.

12 τὰ γὰρ κρυφῇ γινόμενα ὑπ’ αὐτῶν αἰσχρόν ἐστιν καὶ λέγειν,

For the things that secretly come about from them are disgraceful also to say,

13 τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐλεγχόμενα ὑπὸ τοῦ φωτὸς φανεροῦται,

14 πᾶν γὰρ τὸ φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστιν. διὸ λέγει·
ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων,
καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν,
καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός.

15 Βλέπετε οὖν ἀκριβῶς πῶς περιπατεῖτε μὴ ὡς ἄσοφοι ἀλλ’ ὡς σοφοί,

16 ἐξαγοραζόμενοι τὸν καιρόν, ὅτι αἱ ἡμέραι πονηραί εἰσιν.

17 διὰ τοῦτο μὴ γίνεσθε ἄφρονες, ἀλλὰ συνίετε τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου.

18 καὶ μὴ μεθύσκεσθε οἴνῳ, ἐν ᾧ ἐστιν ἀσωτία, ἀλλὰ πληροῦσθε ἐν πνεύματι,

19 λαλοῦντες ἑαυτοῖς [ἐν] ψαλμοῖς καὶ ὕμνοις καὶ ᾠδαῖς πνευματικαῖς, ᾄδοντες καὶ ψάλλοντες τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν τῷ κυρίῳ,

20 εὐχαριστοῦντες πάντοτε ὑπὲρ πάντων ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί.

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Ephesians 4

Unity in the Body of Christ

4:1 Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ ὁ δέσμιος ἐν κυρίῳ ἀξίως περιπατῆσαι τῆς κλήσεως ἧς ἐκλήθητε,

Therefore I, prisoner in the Lord, summon you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling to which you have been called,

2 μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πραΰτητος, μετὰ μακροθυμίας, ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ,

With all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love,

3 σπουδάζοντες τηρεῖν τὴν ἑνότητα τοῦ πνεύματος ἐν τῷ συνδέσμῳ τῆς εἰρήνης·

Eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.

4 Ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεῦμα, καθὼς καὶ ἐκλήθητε ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν·

There is one body, and one Spirit, just as you also have been called in one hope of your calling;

5 εἷς κύριος, μία πίστις, ἓν βάπτισμα,

One Lord, one faith, one baptism,

6 εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων, ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν.

One God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all.

7 Ἑνὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ.

And grace was given to each one of us according to the measure of Christ’s gift.

8 διὸ λέγει· ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.

Wherefore he said: Having gone up on high he led captivity captive, he gave gifts to men.

9 τὸ δὲ ἀνέβη τί ἐστιν, εἰ μὴ ὅτι καὶ κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα [μέρη] τῆς γῆς;

And that, he went up, what is it except that he also went down to the lower parts of the earth?

10 ὁ καταβὰς αὐτός ἐστιν καὶ ὁ ἀναβὰς ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἵνα πληρώσῃ τὰ πάντα.

He who went down is also the same one who went up for above all the heavens, that he may fill all things.

11 Καὶ αὐτὸς ἔδωκεν τοὺς μὲν ἀποστόλους, τοὺς δὲ προφήτας, τοὺς δὲ εὐαγγελιστάς, τοὺς δὲ ποιμένας καὶ διδασκάλους,

And he gave some as apostles, some as prophets, some as evangelists, and some as shepherds and teachers,

12 πρὸς τὸν καταρτισμὸν τῶν ἁγίων εἰς ἔργον διακονίας, εἰς οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ,

Unto the perfecting of the saints, for a work of ministration, for the building up of the body of Christ,

13 μέχρι καταντήσωμεν οἱ πάντες εἰς τὴν ἑνότητα τῆς πίστεως καὶ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰς ἄνδρα τέλειον, εἰς μέτρον ἡλικίας τοῦ πληρώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ,

Until we all may come to the unity of the faith, and of the recognition of the Son of God, to a complete man, to a measure of stature of the completion of Christ,

14 ἵνα μηκέτι ὦμεν νήπιοι, κλυδωνιζόμενοι καὶ περιφερόμενοι παντὶ ἀνέμῳ τῆς διδασκαλίας ἐν τῇ κυβείᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἐν πανουργίᾳ πρὸς τὴν μεθοδείαν τῆς πλάνης,

So that we may no longer be children, tossed and borne about on every wind of the teaching, in the sleight of men, in craftiness, unto the artifice of leading astray,

15 ἀληθεύοντες δὲ ἐν ἀγάπῃ αὐξήσωμεν εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα, ὅς ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλή, Χριστός,

Rather, speaking truthfully in love we may increase in all things to Him, who is the head, Christ.

16 ἐξ οὗ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα συναρμολογούμενον καὶ συμβιβαζόμενον διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας κατ’ ἐνέργειαν ἐν μέτρῳ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου μέρους τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ σώματος ποιεῖται εἰς οἰκοδομὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ.

From whom the whole body is fit together and joined, through every joint of the supply, according to the working in the measure of each single part, the increase of the body makes for the building up of itself in love.

The New Life

17 Τοῦτο οὖν λέγω καὶ μαρτύρομαι ἐν κυρίῳ, μηκέτι ὑμᾶς περιπατεῖν, καθὼς καὶ τὰ ἔθνη περιπατεῖ ἐν ματαιότητι τοῦ νοὸς αὐτῶν,

This I say to you therefore, and testify in the Lord, that you no longer walk as the Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their minds.

18 ἐσκοτωμένοι τῇ διανοίᾳ ὄντες, ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν ἄγνοιαν τὴν οὖσαν ἐν αὐτοῖς, διὰ τὴν πώρωσιν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν,

Being darkened in the intellect, being estranged from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them, because of the hardness of their heart,

19 οἵτινες ἀπηλγηκότες ἑαυτοὺς παρέδωκαν τῇ ἀσελγείᾳ εἰς ἐργασίαν ἀκαθαρσίας πάσης ἐν πλεονεξίᾳ.

Who, having ceased to feel, themselves did give up to the lasciviousness, to the working of all uncleanness in greediness.

20 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν,

And you did not in this manner learn the Christ,

21 εἴ γε αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἐδιδάχθητε, καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ,

If you really did hear him, and in him were taught, as truth is in Jesus,

22 ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς κατὰ τὴν προτέραν ἀναστροφὴν τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν φθειρόμενον κατὰ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ἀπάτης,

You are to put off concerning the former behavior the old man, who is corrupted by his desires for deceit,

23 ἀνανεοῦσθαι δὲ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν

And to be renewed in the spirit of your mind

24 καὶ ἐνδύσασθαι τὸν καινὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν κατὰ θεὸν κτισθέντα ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ὁσιότητι τῆς ἀληθείας.

And to put on the new man, who, according to God, was created in justice and holiness of the truth.

25 Διὸ ἀποθέμενοι τὸ ψεῦδος λαλεῖτε ἀλήθειαν ἕκαστος μετὰ τοῦ πλησίον αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἐσμὲν ἀλλήλων μέλη.

Wherefore, having renounced the lie, speak truth each with his neighbor, because we are members one of another.

26 ὀργίζεσθε καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε· ὁ ἥλιος μὴ ἐπιδυέτω ἐπὶ [τῷ] παροργισμῷ ὑμῶν,

Be angry and do not sin; let not the sun go down upon your wrath,

27 μηδὲ δίδοτε τόπον τῷ διαβόλῳ.

and do not give a place to the devil.

28 ὁ κλέπτων μηκέτι κλεπτέτω, μᾶλλον δὲ κοπιάτω ἐργαζόμενος ταῖς [ἰδίαις] χερσὶν τὸ ἀγαθόν, ἵνα ἔχῃ μεταδιδόναι τῷ χρείαν ἔχοντι.

Let the thief no longer steal, but rather let him toil, working good with his own hands, so that he may be able to impart to him who has need.

29 πᾶς λόγος σαπρὸς ἐκ τοῦ στόματος ὑμῶν μὴ ἐκπορευέσθω, ἀλλ’ εἴ τις ἀγαθὸς πρὸς οἰκοδομὴν τῆς χρείας, ἵνα δῷ χάριν τοῖς ἀκούουσιν.

Let no corrupt word from your mouth go forth, but what is good for the building up of the needful, that it may give grace to those who hear.

30 καὶ μὴ λυπεῖτε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐν ᾧ ἐσφραγίσθητε εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως.

And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, in whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.

31 πᾶσα πικρία καὶ θυμὸς καὶ ὀργὴ καὶ κραυγὴ καὶ βλασφημία ἀρθήτω ἀφ’ ὑμῶν σὺν πάσῃ κακίᾳ.

Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamor, and blasphemy be lifted up away from you together with all malice.

32 γίνεσθε [δὲ] εἰς ἀλλήλους χρηστοί, εὔσπλαγχνοι, χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς, καθὼς καὶ ὁ θεὸς ἐν Χριστῷ ἐχαρίσατο ὑμῖν.

But become useful to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, just as God in Christ also forgave you.

Ephesians 3

The Mystery of the Gospel Revealed

3:1 Τούτου χάριν ἐγὼ Παῦλος ὁ δέσμιος τοῦ Χριστοῦ [Ἰησοῦ] ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν τῶν ἐθνῶν

On account of this, I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus on behalf of you Gentiles —

2 – εἴ γε ἠκούσατε τὴν οἰκονομίαν τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς δοθείσης μοι εἰς ὑμᾶς,

If indeed you did hear about the dispensation of the grace of Gid which was given to me for you,

3 [ὅτι] κατὰ ἀποκάλυψιν ἐγνωρίσθη μοι τὸ μυστήριον, καθὼς προέγραψα ἐν ὀλίγῳ,

That by revelation he made known to me the mystery, just as I wrote before in few words,

4 πρὸς ὃ δύνασθε ἀναγινώσκοντες νοῆσαι τὴν σύνεσίν μου ἐν τῷ μυστηρίῳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ,

In regard to which, you are able, reading it, to understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ,

5 ὃ ἑτέραις γενεαῖς οὐκ ἐγνωρίσθη τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὡς νῦν ἀπεκαλύφθη τοῖς ἁγίοις ἀποστόλοις αὐτοῦ καὶ προφήταις ἐν πνεύματι,

Which was not made known in other generations to the sons of men as it was now revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit —

6 εἶναι τὰ ἔθνη συγκληρονόμα καὶ σύσσωμα καὶ συμμέτοχα τῆς ἐπαγγελίας ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου,

That the nations be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the good news,

7 οὗ ἐγενήθην διάκονος κατὰ τὴν δωρεὰν τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς δοθείσης μοι κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ.

Of which I was made a servant according to the gift of the grace of God which was given me according to the working of His might.

8 Ἐμοὶ τῷ ἐλαχιστοτέρῳ πάντων ἁγίων ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις αὕτη, τοῖς ἔθνεσιν εὐαγγελίσασθαι τὸ ἀνεξιχνίαστον πλοῦτος τοῦ Χριστοῦ

To me, the least of all the saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the incomprehensible riches of Christ

I really like the humility expressed in this verse. I recall Paul referring to himself as “the least of the apostles”, but here he refers to himself as “the least of the saints”, which means, “the least of the early Christians”.

9 καὶ φωτίσαι [πάντας] τίς ἡ οἰκονομία τοῦ μυστηρίου τοῦ ἀποκεκρυμμένου ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων ἐν τῷ θεῷ τῷ τὰ πάντα κτίσαντι,

And to cause all to see what is the stewardship of the mystery that has been hidden from the ages in God who created all things,

10 ἵνα γνωρισθῇ νῦν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς καὶ ταῖς ἐξουσίαις ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις διὰ τῆς ἐκκλησίας ἡ πολυποίκιλος σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ,

So that it may be declared now to the rulers and the powers in the heavens through the church the manifold wisdom of God,

11 κατὰ πρόθεσιν τῶν αἰώνων ἣν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν,

According to the predetermination of the ages which He made in Christ Jesus our Lord,

12 ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ προσαγωγὴν ἐν πεποιθήσει διὰ τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ.

In whom we have the freedom and the confidence in access through the faith of him.

13 διὸ αἰτοῦμαι μὴ ἐγκακεῖν ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσίν μου ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν, ἥτις ἐστὶν δόξα ὑμῶν.1,2

Wherefore I ask you not to faint in my tribulations on behalf of you, which is your glory.

Prayer for Spiritual Strength

14 Τούτου χάριν κάμπτω τὰ γόνατά μου πρὸς τὸν πατέρα,

For this reason I bend my knees before the Father,

15 ἐξ οὗ πᾶσα πατριὰ ἐν οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς ὀνομάζεται,3

From whom every family in heaven and on earth is named,

16 ἵνα δῷ ὑμῖν κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ δυνάμει κραταιωθῆναι διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον,4

That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might through his Spirit in your inner being,

17 κατοικῆσαι τὸν Χριστὸν διὰ τῆς πίστεως ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν, ἐν ἀγάπῃ ἐρριζωμένοι καὶ τεθεμελιωμένοι,

that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that being rooted and grounded in love,

18 ἵνα ἐξισχύσητε καταλαβέσθαι σὺν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἁγίοις τί τὸ πλάτος καὶ μῆκος καὶ ὕψος καὶ βάθος,

You may be strengthened to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth, and length, and height, and depth,

19 γνῶναί τε τὴν ὑπερβάλλουσαν τῆς γνώσεως ἀγάπην τοῦ Χριστοῦ, ἵνα πληρωθῆτε εἰς πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ θεοῦ.5

To know the love of Christ, which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.

20 Τῷ δὲ δυναμένῳ ὑπὲρ πάντα ποιῆσαι ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ ὧν αἰτούμεθα ἢ νοοῦμεν κατὰ τὴν δύναμιν τὴν ἐνεργουμένην ἐν ἡμῖν,

And to Him who has power over all things to do beyond all measure what we ask or think, according to the power that is working in us,

21 αὐτῷ ἡ δόξα ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων, ἀμήν.6

To Him is the glory in the Church and in Christ Jesus, throughout all the generations of the age of the ages. Amen.


1 I am copying Robert Young in placing the pronoun “you” before the infinitive ἐγκακεῖν (“to faint”) but, at first glance, it seems possible that Paul could be the subject of this infinitive. For example, “I ask not to grow weary in my tribulations on behalf of you, which is your glory.” This is another interesting translation.

2 Is the addition of “you” in Ephesians 3:13 really necessary? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31464/17070

3 The Greek word πατριὰ closely resembles the word πατέρα in the previous verse. It can be read at least two ways. First, “from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named”. And second, “from whom all fatherhood in heaven and on earth is named”. Both meanings come across in the original Greek text, whereas translation must choose one or the other.

4 The end of this verse, τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον, is translated differently across the Douay-Rheims, YLT and ESV. Douay-Rheims gives “inward man”, YLT gives “inner man”, and ESV gives “inner being”. I prefer the choice made by the ESV, as it is the most idiomatic. It’s unclear in modern English what the “inner man” or even the “inward man” really is. Not to mention, it’s a bit sexist.

5 How to translate εἰς here? The KJV and ESV both use “with”. It’s not my first choice out-of-context, but definitely makes sense in context.

6 What’s the overall meaning of Ephesians 3:21? Do I understand it accurately? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31467/17070

Ephesians 2

By Grace Through Faith

2:1 Καὶ ὑμᾶς ὄντας νεκροὺς τοῖς παραπτώμασιν καὶ ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις ὑμῶν,

And you being dead in your sins and trespasses,

2 ἐν αἷς ποτε περιεπατήσατε κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, κατὰ τὸν ἄρχοντα τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος, τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ νῦν ἐνεργοῦντος ἐν τοῖς υἱοῖς τῆς ἀπειθείας·

In which you once did walk according to the age of this world, according to the prince of the power of air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of unbelief,

3 ἐν οἷς καὶ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἀνεστράφημέν ποτε ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν ποιοῦντες τὰ θελήματα τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ τῶν διανοιῶν, καὶ ἤμεθα τέκνα φύσει ὀργῆς ὡς καὶ οἱ λοιποί·

Among whom we all once lived, in the passions of our flesh, doing the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest.

4 ὁ δὲ θεὸς πλούσιος ὢν ἐν ἐλέει, διὰ τὴν πολλὴν ἀγάπην αὐτοῦ ἣν ἠγάπησεν ἡμᾶς,

But God being rich in mercy, on account of the great love with which he loved us,

5 καὶ ὄντας ἡμᾶς νεκροὺς τοῖς παραπτώμασιν συνεζωοποίησεν τῷ Χριστῷ,– χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι–

Even when we were dead in our trespasses, he made us alive together with Christ – by grace you have been saved –

6 καὶ συνήγειρεν καὶ συνεκάθισεν ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ,

And raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavens in Christ Jesus,

7 ἵνα ἐνδείξηται ἐν τοῖς αἰῶσιν τοῖς ἐπερχομένοις τὸ ὑπερβάλλον πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἐν χρηστότητι ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.

So that he might show in the coming ages the exceeding riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.

8 Τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως· καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον·

For by grace you have been saved through faith; and this is not of you, of God the gift,

9 οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων, ἵνα μή τις καυχήσηται.

not of works, so that no one may boast

10 αὐτοῦ γάρ ἐσμεν ποίημα, κτισθέντες ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἐπὶ ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς οἷς προητοίμασεν ὁ θεός, ἵνα ἐν αὐτοῖς περιπατήσωμεν.

For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to good works which God prepared beforehand, so that in them we may walk.

One in Christ

11 Διὸ μνημονεύετε ὅτι ποτὲ ὑμεῖς τὰ ἔθνη ἐν σαρκί, οἱ λεγόμενοι ἀκροβυστία ὑπὸ τῆς λεγομένης περιτομῆς ἐν σαρκὶ χειροποιήτου,

Wherefore remember that once you were nations in the flesh, who were called Uncircumcision by the ones called Circumcision in the flesh made with hands.

This verse reminds us to welcome the stranger. For the Uncircumcised in the flesh become the Circumcised in the heart.

12 ὅτι ἦτε τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ χωρὶς Χριστοῦ, ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τῆς πολιτείας τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ξένοι τῶν διαθηκῶν τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, ἐλπίδα μὴ ἔχοντες καὶ ἄθεοι ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ.

That you were in that time apart Christ, having been alienated from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers of the covenants of the promise, having no hope, and without God, in the world.

The Church was capable of welcoming them, whereas Israel was not. I think the Church still has this advantage over nations today.

13 νυνὶ δὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ὑμεῖς οἵ ποτε ὄντες μακρὰν ἐγενήθητε ἐγγὺς ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ.

But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off became near in the blood of Christ.

14 Αὐτὸς γάρ ἐστιν ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν, ὁ ποιήσας τὰ ἀμφότερα ἓν καὶ τὸ μεσότοιχον τοῦ φραγμοῦ λύσας, τὴν ἔχθραν ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ,

For he is our peace, who made both one, and the middle wall of the partition has destroyed, the enmity in his flesh,

15 τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν καταργήσας, ἵνα τοὺς δύο κτίσῃ ἐν αὐτῷ εἰς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον ποιῶν εἰρήνην

The law of the commands in ordinances having done away, that the two he might create in himself into one new man, making peace

16 καὶ ἀποκαταλλάξῃ τοὺς ἀμφοτέρους ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ σταυροῦ, ἀποκτείνας τὴν ἔχθραν ἐν αὐτῷ.

and that he might reconcile the two in one body to God through the cross, killing the enmity in himself.

17 καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐηγγελίσατο εἰρήνην ὑμῖν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ εἰρήνην τοῖς ἐγγύς·

And he came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to you who were near.

18 ὅτι δι’ αὐτοῦ ἔχομεν τὴν προσαγωγὴν οἱ ἀμφότεροι ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι πρὸς τὸν πατέρα.

For through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father.

19 Ἄρα οὖν οὐκέτι ἐστὲ ξένοι καὶ πάροικοι ἀλλ’ ἐστὲ συμπολῖται τῶν ἁγίων καὶ οἰκεῖοι τοῦ θεοῦ,

Therefore you are no longer strangers and foreigners but fellow citizens of the saints and members of the household of God,

20 ἐποικοδομηθέντες ἐπὶ τῷ θεμελίῳ τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ προφητῶν, ὄντος ἀκρογωνιαίου αὐτοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ,

Building upon the foundation of the apostles and the prophets, Christ Jesus being its cornerstone,

21 ἐν ᾧ πᾶσα οἰκοδομὴ συναρμολογουμένη αὔξει εἰς ναὸν ἅγιον ἐν κυρίῳ,

In whom the entire building joined together grows into a holy temple in the Lord,

22 ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς συνοικοδομεῖσθε εἰς κατοικητήριον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν πνεύματι.

In whom you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.


1 Which verb/participle governs this phrase? (Ephesians 2:14-15) https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31459/17070

Faith, hope, love.

Faith goes up the stairs that love has built and looks out the windows which hope has opened.

—Charles Haddon Spurgeon

These are truly inspiring metaphors as they not only capture the three highest spiritual qualities (faith, hope, love) but also show what they can do. Love can build stairs which lead to a higher place and hope can open windows which show us a new view. I think it’s good to compare this quote with a famous chapter from 1 Corinthians. It’s more than possible that the author had this in mind.

1 Corinthians 13 English Standard Version (ESV)
The Way of Love
13 If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. 2 And if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3 If I give away all I have, and if I deliver up my body to be burned,[a] but have not love, I gain nothing.

4 Love is patient and kind; love does not envy or boast; it is not arrogant 5 or rude. It does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful;[b] 6 it does not rejoice at wrongdoing, but rejoices with the truth. 7 Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

8 Love never ends. As for prophecies, they will pass away; as for tongues, they will cease; as for knowledge, it will pass away. 9 For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10 but when the perfect comes, the partial will pass away. 11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. 12 For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known.

13 So now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; but the greatest of these is love.

We see the same three spiritual qualities referenced in this chapter: faith, hope, and love. But Paul extols love above the others. For he reasons, if he has not love, then he is nothing (verses 1-3). He goes on to give a beautiful description of what love means (4-7). He continues with a testament to love’s permanence and immortality. The phrase “for now we see in a mirror dimly” is mysterious and poetic. The entirety of verse 12 is illuminating. It reminds us of our partial knowledge here on earth. The final verse, verse 13, makes the ultimate point: the greatest thing is love.

Ephesians 1

Ephesus was an ancient Greek city located in modern-day Turkey. It was founded in the 10th century BC, and came under Roman rule in 129 BC. It had several notable buildings, such as the Temple of Artemis and the Library of Celsus. Its ruins attract many tourists. Ephesus is not just the name of a city but also the name of a church. The eponymous church was one of the seven major churches of Asia. This epistle to the Ephesians has many deep verses to dwell on, but one of the main theological points is that the Church is the body of Christ. As Christ’s body, the Church can bring unity to the world and reconciliation with God. Christ is simultaneously the cornerstone of that building and the head which presides over it. The epistle ends with a beautiful metaphor, a description of the Armor of God, which is previously referred to ever so briefly in Romans 13:12 (ESV) “The night is far gone; the day is at hand. So then let us cast off the works of darkness and put on the armor of light.” (source)

Greeting

1:1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς οὖσιν [ἐν Ἐφέσῳ] καὶ πιστοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ,1,2

Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus, according to the will of God, to God’s people who are in Ephesus and to the faithful in Christ Jesus,

2 χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

Grace to you and peace from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

Spiritual blessings in Christ

3 Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ,

God is to be praised who is also the father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the one who blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly realms in Christ,

4 καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ

Just as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before his face in love

5 προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ,

Having predestined us for adoption to himself as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the favor of his will.

6 εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ.

To the praise of the glory of his grace, which he bestowed freely on us in the Beloved.

7 Ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ

In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace,

8 ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς, ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει,

which was left over to us, in all wisdom and understanding,

9 γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ

having made known to us the mystery of his will, according to his favor, which he purposed in Himself,

10 εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἐν αὐτῷ

For the stewardship of the fullness of time, to gather together in one all things in Christ, all things in heaven and all things on earth, in Him.

This is a beautiful verse. God, being the steward of time, saw fit to summarize all things in Christ.

11 Ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ

In whom we also obtained an inheritance, according to the purpose of He is who working all things according to the desire of his will,

This is another beautiful verse. It reminds us that Jesus Christ is our inheritance. It also reminds us of God’s sovereign will.

12 εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης αὐτοῦ τοὺς προηλπικότας ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ.

That we be to the praise of his glory, we who first believed in Christ.

13 Ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀκούσαντες τὸν λόγον τῆς ἀληθείας, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς σωτηρίας ὑμῶν, ἐν ᾧ καὶ πιστεύσαντες ἐσφραγίσθητε τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ,

In whom also you, having heard the word of truth, the good news of your salvation, in whom also you, having believed, were sealed in the promised Holy Spirit,

14 ὅ ἐστιν ἀρραβὼν τῆς κληρονομίας ἡμῶν, εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, εἰς ἔπαινον τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ.

Which is the guarantee of our inheritance, until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of His glory.

Thanksgiving and Prayer

15 Διὰ τοῦτο κἀγὼ ἀκούσας τὴν καθ’ ὑμᾶς πίστιν ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην τὴν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἁγίους

On account of this, I also having heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and the love for all the saints,

16 οὐ παύομαι εὐχαριστῶν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν μνείαν ποιούμενος ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου,

do not cease giving thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers,

17 ἵνα ὁ θεὸς τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, δώῃ ὑμῖν πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως ἐν ἐπιγνώσει αὐτοῦ,

so that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of the glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him,

18 πεφωτισμένους τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας [ὑμῶν] εἰς τὸ εἰδέναι ὑμᾶς τίς ἐστιν ἡ ἐλπὶς τῆς κλήσεως αὐτοῦ, τίς ὁ πλοῦτος τῆς δόξης τῆς κληρονομίας αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἁγίοις,

the eyes of your heart being opened for you to know what is the hope of His calling, what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints,

19 καὶ τί τὸ ὑπερβάλλον μέγεθος τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ εἰς ἡμᾶς τοὺς πιστεύοντας κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ.4

and what the exceeding greatness of His power to us who are believing, according to the working of the power of his might.

20 Ἣν ἐνήργησεν ἐν τῷ Χριστῷ ἐγείρας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν καὶ καθίσας ἐν δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις

Which he wrought in the Christ, having raised him from the dead, and having sat him at His right hand in the heavens,

I love this. It’s such a straightforward example of God’s power. I also like the verb “wrought”, which Young uses. It’s the past tense of “work”.

21 ὑπεράνω πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας καὶ δυνάμεως καὶ κυριότητος καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου, οὐ μόνον ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τούτῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι·

Far above every principality, authority, might, and lordship, and every name named, not only in this age but also in the one to come,

22 καὶ πάντα ὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν κεφαλὴν ὑπὲρ πάντα τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ,

And he placed all things under his feet, and gave him as head over all things to the church,

23 ἥτις ἐστὶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ, τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν πληρουμένου.

Which is his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all.


1 What is the difference in meaning between the phrases «Χριστός Ἰησοῦς» and «Ἰησοῦς Χριστός»? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/4319/17070

2 What are some arguments for and against translating τοῖς ἁγίοις as “the saints”? How does it get translated in recent times? (Ephesians 1:1) https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31420/17070

3 Does ἐν αὐτῷ in Ephesians 1:9 refer to Father or Son? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31435/17070

4 Is this pleonasm: “according to the power of his might”? (Ephesians 1:19 YLT) https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/q/31439/17070

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A male, young in years, a poet, an American, a Christian.