Peneus River

Metamorphoses 1.568-572

Est nemus Haemoniae, praerupta quod undique claudit
silva: vocant Tempe. Per quae Peneus ab imo
effusus Pindo spumosis volvitur undis,
deiectuque gravi tenues agitantia fumos
nubila conducit summisque adspergine silvis
inpluit et sonitu plus quam vicina fatigat.

There is a grove in Thessaly, which an abrupt wood encloses on every side: they call it Tempe. Through which Peneus poured out from the foot of Pindus was rolled out in frothy waves, and by its heavy downfall gathers mists driving thin fumes, and rains on the tops of woods with its spray, and vexes more than the vicinity with its sound.


  1. imus, a, um — lowest, deepest, last (in this context, “foot”)
  2. spumosus, a, um — frothy, foaming
  3. volvitur — passive form of volvo, meaning “I roll, tumble”
  4. unda, undae — waves (dative/ablative plural)
  5. deiectus (genitive deiectus) — downfall
  6. gravis m,f (neuter grave) — heavy; hard; grave, serious
  7. tenuis m, f (neuter tenue) — thin, fine, slender; weak, watery
  8. agitantia — agitating (present participle, nom./acc. neuter plural)
  9. fumus, fumi — smoke, steam
  10. nubilus, a, um — cloudy, overcast; dark, gloomy
  11. vicina, vicinae — neighbor
  12. fatigat — tire or weary; vex or torment

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