Bellum Gallicum I.II

Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus Orgetorix. Is M. Messala, [et P.] M. Pisone consulibus regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit et civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent: [2] perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totius Galliae imperio potiri. [3] Id hoc facilius iis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: una ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit; altera ex parte monte Iura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. [4] His rebus fiebat ut et minus late vagarentur et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent; [5] qua ex parte homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. [6] Pro multitudine autem hominum et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem milia passuum CCXL, in latitudinem CLXXX patebant.

Among the Helvetians, Orgetorix was for a long time the noblest and the wealthiest. When M. Messala and M. Pisone were consuls, led by desire for the kingdom, he created a conspiracy of the nobility and persuaded the citizens that they should depart their land with all their troops, saying that it would be very easy, since they surpassed all in courage, to acquire the supremacy of the whole of Gaul. He persuaded them of it more easily on account of this, because on all sides the Helvetians are bounded by the nature of the country: on one side by the very wide and deep Rhine river river, which divides the Helvetian land from the Germans; on the other side by the very tall Iura mountain, which is between the Sequanis and the Helvetians; on the third side by Lake Geneva and the Rhode river, which divides our province from the Helvetians. From these things it was coming about that they roamed about less widely and could less easily wage war with their neighbors; in which respect, men desirous of war were afflicted with great sorrow. They thought that, considering their multitude of men and their renown for war and bravery, they had but narrow limits, which they increased in length by CCXL miles, and in breadth by CLXXX miles.

Notes

(1.2.1) Not only does persuasit introduce a subjunctive ut clause, but it also creates an indirect discourse (oratio obliqua) which begins with the phrase perfacile esse.

Advertisements

Bellum Gallicum I.I

Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. [2] Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. [3] Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, [4] proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. [5] [Eorum una, pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, vergit ad septentriones. [6] Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. [7] Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.]

All of Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgians inhabit, another the Aquitani, a third those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Galls. All these differ among themselves in language, institutions, and laws. The Garonne river separates the Galls from the Aquitanis, and the Marne and Seine rivers separate them from the Belgians. Of all these the Belgians are the bravest, for the reason that they are the furthest away from the civilization and refinement of the Province, and least often do the merchants travel to them and import those things which tend to weaken men’s minds, and they are closest to the Germans, who live across the Rhine, with whom they continuously wage war. For which reason the Helvetians also surpass the rest of the Gauls in virtue, because they fight with the Germans in battles almost daily, when they either prohibit them from their borders or wage war in their enemy’s land. One of these parts, which it is said the Gauls occupy, begins at the Rhone river, is bounded by the Garonne river, the ocean, and the lands of the Belgians; it borders, too, on the side of the Sequanis and Helvetians, upon the Rhine river, and it stretches toward the north. The Belgians arise from the farthest lands of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the Rhine river, and look toward the north and the rising sun. Aquitania extends from the Garonne river to the Pyrenees mountains and that part of the ocean which is next to Spain; it looks between the setting sun and the north.

Notes

(1.1.6) In Latin, it’s common to omit the coordinating conjunction at the end of a list of more than two items. We see that happen here, where the first sentence beginning with Belgae has no conjunction (such as et or the enclitic -que) at the end. The opposite is true in English, where we tend to place and before the last item in a list.

Paradise Lost (Book III)

Passage #1

For man will heark’n to his glozing lyes,
And easily transgress the sole Command,
Sole pledge of his obedience: So will fall, [ 95 ]
Hee and his faithless Progenie: whose fault?
Whose but his own? ingrate, he had of mee
All he could have; I made him just and right,
Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall.

Comments:

God shares his foreknowledge of the Fall of Man. This omniscience coexists with man’s free will, which is sometimes considered a paradox in philosophy. Boethius, Aquinas, and CS Lewis have all offered similar solutions to this paradox.

Passage #2

Such I created all th’ Ethereal Powers [ 100 ]
And Spirits, both them who stood and them who faild;
Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell.
Not free, what proof could they have givn sincere
Of true allegiance, constant Faith or Love,
Where onely what they needs must do, appeard, [ 105 ]
Not what they would?

Comments:

Milton gives a justification for free will, which in turn causes the Fall of Man. Without free will, he argues, human beings would have no way of proving their sincere allegiance to God.

*For notes to Book 3, visit the John Milton Reading Room.

Paradise Lost (Book I)

Passage #1

Is this the Region, this the Soil, the Clime,
Said then the lost Arch-Angel, this the seat
That we must change for Heav’n, this mournful gloom
For that celestial light? Be it so, since he [ 245 ]
Who now is Sovran can dispose and bid
What shall be right: fardest from him is best
Whom reason hath equald, force hath made supream
Above his equals. Farewel happy Fields
Where Joy for ever dwells: Hail horrours, hail [ 250 ]
Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell
Receive thy new Possessor: One who brings
A mind not to be chang’d by Place or Time.
The mind is its own place, and in it self
Can make a Heav’n of Hell, a Hell of Heav’n. [ 255 ]

Passage #2

Here at least
We shall be free; th’ Almighty hath not built
Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: [ 260 ]
Here we may reign secure, and in my choyce
To reign is worth ambition though in Hell:
Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav’n.

Comments:

The John Milton Reading Room makes an astute comparison to what Achilles has to say when Odysseus meets him in Hades. “I would rather be a paid servant in a poor man’s house and be above ground than king of kings among the dead” (Odyssey 11.489-91).

Passage #3

He call’d so loud, that all the hollow Deep
Of Hell resounded. Princes, Potentates, [ 315 ]
Warriers, the Flowr of Heav’n, once yours, now lost,
If such astonishment as this can sieze
Eternal spirits; or have ye chos’n this place
After the toyl of Battel to repose
Your wearied vertue, for the ease you find [ 320 ]
To slumber here, as in the Vales of Heav’n?
Or in this abject posture have ye sworn
To adore the Conquerour? who now beholds
Cherube and Seraph rowling in the Flood
With scatter’d Arms and Ensigns, till anon [ 325 ]
His swift pursuers from Heav’n Gates discern
Th’ advantage, and descending tread us down
Thus drooping, or with linked Thunderbolts
Transfix us to the bottom of this Gulfe.
Awake, arise, or be for ever fall’n. [ 330 ]

* For notes to Book I, visit the John Milton Reading Room.

The Greatest Commandment

Mark 12:28-34

Καὶ προσελθὼν εἷς τῶν γραμματέων ἀκούσας αὐτῶν συζητούντων, ἰδὼν ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν· ποία ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων; 29ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι πρώτη ἐστίν·ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστιν, καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου. δευτέρα αὕτη·ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.* μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν. Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ γραμματεύς· καλῶς, διδάσκαλε, ἐπ’ ἀληθείας εἶπες ὅτι εἷς ἐστιν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ·καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς συνέσεως καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾶν τὸν πλησίον ὡς ἑαυτὸν περισσότερόν ἐστιν πάντων τῶν ὁλοκαυτωμάτων καὶ θυσιῶν. καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἰδὼν [αὐτὸν] ὅτι νουνεχῶς ἀπεκρίθη εἶπεν αὐτῷ· οὐ μακρὰν εἶ ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ. Καὶ οὐδεὶς οὐκέτι ἐτόλμα αὐτὸν ἐπερωτῆσαι.

And one of the scribes approached, having heard them disputing, and seeing that he answered them well, asked him, “Which is the first commandment of all?” And Jesus answered that the first is this: “Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall love the Lord your God from your whole heart, and from your whole soul, and from your whole mind, and from your whole strength. The second is this: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. There is no other commandment greater than these.” And the scribe said to him: “Teacher, you spoke well, in truth, that there is one God and there is no other except him. And loving him from one’s whole heart and from one’s whole understanding and from one’s whole strength and loving one’s neighbor as oneself is greater than all sacrifices and burnt offerings.” And Jesus, seeing that he answered wisely, said to him: “You are not far from the Kingdom of God.” And no one dared to question him any longer.

Beatitudes

Matthew 5:1-12

Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος, καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων· μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται. μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσι τὴν γῆν. μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσονται. μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. μακάριοι οἱ καθαροί τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν Θεὸν ὄψονται. μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ Θεοῦ κληθήσονται. μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσι καὶ εἴπωσι πᾶν πονηρὸν ῥῆμα καθ᾿ ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ. χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· οὕτω γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.

And having seen the crowds he went up into the mountain, and having sat down his disciples approached him, and having opened his mouth he taught them, saying: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy. Blessed are the pure of heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when they may reproach you, and persecute you, and say every bad word against you, lying, on account of me. Rejoice and be exceeding glad, because your reward is much in heaven. For in this way they persecuted the prophets before you.

Click here for vocabulary flashcards

Love is patient, love is kind

1 Corinthians 13:4-7

Ἡ ἀγάπη μακροθυμεῖ, χρηστεύεται, ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ ζηλοῖ, ἡ ἀγάπη οὐ περπερεύεται, οὐ φυσιοῦται, οὐκ ἀσχημονεῖ, οὐ ζητεῖ τὰ ἑαυτῆς, οὐ παροξύνεται, οὐ λογίζεται τὸ κακόν, οὐ χαίρει ἐπὶ τῇ ἀδικίᾳ, συγχαίρει δὲ τῇ ἀληθείᾳ· πάντα στέγει, πάντα πιστεύει, πάντα ἐλπίζει, πάντα ὑπομένει.

Love is patient, love is kind, it does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud, it does not act unbecomingly, it does not seek things for itself, it is not provoked, it keeps no record of wrongs, it bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

Click here for vocabulary flashcards