Bellum Gallicum I.I

Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. [2] Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. [3] Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, [4] proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. [5] [Eorum una, pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, vergit ad septentriones. [6] Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. [7] Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.]

All of Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgians inhabit, another the Aquitani, a third those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Galls. All these differ among themselves in language, institutions, and laws. The Garonne river separates the Galls from the Aquitanis, and the Marne and Seine rivers separate them from the Belgians. Of all these the Belgians are the bravest, for the reason that they are the furthest away from the civilization and refinement of the Province, and least often do the merchants travel to them and import those things which tend to weaken men’s minds, and they are closest to the Germans, who live across the Rhine, with whom they continuously wage war. For which reason the Helvetians also surpass the rest of the Gauls in virtue, because they fight with the Germans in battles almost daily, when they either prohibit them from their borders or wage war in their enemy’s land. One of these parts, which it is said the Gauls occupy, begins at the Rhone river, is bounded by the Garonne river, the ocean, and the lands of the Belgians; it borders, too, on the side of the Sequanis and Helvetians, upon the Rhine river, and it stretches toward the north. The Belgians arise from the farthest lands of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the Rhine river, and look toward the north and the rising sun. Aquitania extends from the Garonne river to the Pyrenees mountains and that part of the ocean which is next to Spain; it looks between the setting sun and the north.


(1.1.6) In Latin, it’s common to omit the coordinating conjunction at the end of a list of more than two items. We see that happen here, where the first sentence beginning with Belgae has no conjunction (such as et or the enclitic -que) at the end. The opposite is true in English, where we tend to place and before the last item in a list.


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