Category Archives: Ancient Greek

Point of view changes everything

Περισκοπεῖν ἄστρων δρόμους ὥσπερ συμπεριθέοντα καὶ τὰς τῶν στοιχείων εἰς ἄλληλα μεταβολὰς συνεχῶς ἐννοεῖν: ἀποκαθαίρουσι γὰρ αἱ τούτων φαντασίαι τὸν ῥύπον τοῦ χαμαὶ βίου.

“Observe the movement of the stars as if you were running their courses with them, and let your mind constantly dwell on the changes of the elements into each other. Such imaginings wash away the filth of life on the ground.”

Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, tr. Martin Hammond — 7.47

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Aur. 1.17.3

τὸ ἄρχοντι καὶ πατρὶ ὑποταχθῆναι1, ὃς ἔμελλε πάντα τὸν τῦφον ἀφαιρήσειν2 μου καὶ εἰς ἔννοιαν3 ἄξειν τοῦ ὅτι δυνατόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐλῇ βιοῦντα μήτε δορυφορήσεων χρῄζειν μήτε ἐσθήτων σημειωδῶν μήτε λαμπάδων καὶ ἀνδριάντων τοιῶνδέ τινων καὶ τοῦ ὁμοίου κόμπου, ἀλλ̓ ἔξεστιν4 ἐγγυτάτω ἰδιώτου συστέλλειν ἑαυτὸν καὶ μὴ διὰ τοῦτο ταπεινότερον ἢ ῥᾳθυμότερον ἔχειν πρὸς τὰ ὑπὲρ τῶν κοινῶν ἡγεμονικῶς πραχθῆναι δέοντα.

That I came under a ruler and a father, who intended to take away all of my conceit, and brought me to realize that it is possible to live in a court having need of neither bodyguards, nor fancy clothes, nor candelabra, and such things as statues and those of similar vaunt, but that one can reduce oneself very close to the station of a private citizen and not, through this, be meaner or lazier with respect to the things that need to be done authoritatively for the sake of the common good.

1 ὑποταχθῆναι (aor. inf. pass.): from ὑποτάσσω: to place under
2 ἀφαιρήσειν (fut. inf. act.): from ἀφαιρέω: to take away from
3 ἔννοια: thought, cogitation, reflection
4 ἔξεστιν: it is allowed, it is possible

 

 

ΑΘΛΑ ΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΜΙΣΘΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΔΩΡΑ ΓΙΓΝΕΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΣ ΕΚΕΙΝΟΙΣ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΓΑΘΟΙΣ ΟΙΣ ΑΥΤΗ ΠΑΡΕΙΧΕΤΟ Η ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣΥΝΗ

καὶ ἀνθρώπων ἆθλά1 τε καὶ μισθοὶ2 καὶ δῶρα γίγνεται πρὸς ἐκείνοις τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς οἷς αὐτὴ παρείχετο ἡ δικαιοσύνη, τοιαῦτ᾽ ἂν εἴη3.

καὶ μάλ᾽4, ἔφη, καλά τε καὶ βέβαια.5

And the prizes and rewards and gifts of men are made to those good men whom justice itself produces, such as those that could exist.

Yes, he said, they are both fair and sure.

(Plat. Rep. 10.614a)


1 ἆθλον, τό: prize of contest
2 μισθός, ὁ: wages, reward
3 εἴη (3sg pres. opt. act.): potential optative (could/would)
4 καὶ μάλ᾽: (Attic) (in answers) yes, certainly
5 These substantives are most likely neuter, and thus refer to the prizes, rewards, and gifts that Socrates was talking about.

Η ΤΟΥ ΑΓΑΘΟΥ ΙΔΕΑ

τοῦτο τοίνυν τὸ τὴν ἀλήθειαν παρέχον τοῖς γιγνωσκομένοις καὶ τῷ γιγνώσκοντι τὴν δύναμιν ἀποδιδὸν τὴν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέαν φάθι εἶναι:

This1, then, which furnishes truth to the objects of knowledge and gives power to the knower, you must say is the idea of the good.

  1. ἀποδίδωμι: to give back, assign
  2. παρέχω: to offer, furnish, produce

Plato’s Republic, Bk VI 508e


1 The “idea of the good”, here, is being drawn in analogy to the sun, which allows all things to be seen.

Jesus and the Woman of Samaria (unfinished)

Ὡς οὖν ἔγνω ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤκουσαν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ὅτι Ἰησοῦς πλείονας μαθητὰς ποιεῖ καὶ βαπτίζει ἢ Ἰωάννης – καίτοιγε Ἰησοῦς αὐτὸς οὐκ ἐβάπτιζεν ἀλλ’ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ– ἀφῆκεν τὴν Ἰουδαίαν καὶ ἀπῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν. Ἔδει δὲ αὐτὸν διέρχεσθαι διὰ τῆς Σαμαρείας. Ἔρχεται οὖν εἰς πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρείας λεγομένην Συχὰρ πλησίον τοῦ χωρίου ὃ ἔδωκεν Ἰακὼβ [τῷ] Ἰωσὴφ τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ· ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ πηγὴ τοῦ Ἰακώβ. ὁ οὖν Ἰησοῦς κεκοπιακὼς ἐκ τῆς ὁδοιπορίας ἐκαθέζετο οὕτως ἐπὶ τῇ πηγῇ· ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη. Ἔρχεται γυνὴ ἐκ τῆς Σαμαρείας ἀντλῆσαι ὕδωρ. λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· δός μοι πεῖν· οἱ γὰρ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπεληλύθεισαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἵνα τροφὰς ἀγοράσωσιν. λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ ἡ γυνὴ ἡ Σαμαρῖτις· πῶς σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ὢν παρ’ ἐμοῦ πεῖν αἰτεῖς γυναικὸς Σαμαρίτιδος οὔσης; οὐ γὰρ συγχρῶνται Ἰουδαῖοι Σαμαρίταις. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ· εἰ ᾔδεις τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τίς ἐστιν ὁ λέγων σοι· δός μοι πεῖν, σὺ ἂν ᾔτησας αὐτὸν καὶ ἔδωκεν ἄν σοι ὕδωρ ζῶν. Λέγει αὐτῷ [ἡ γυνή]· κύριε, οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καὶ τὸ φρέαρ ἐστὶν βαθύ· πόθεν οὖν ἔχεις τὸ ὕδωρ τὸ ζῶν; μὴ σὺ μείζων εἶ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν Ἰακώβ, ὃς ἔδωκεν ἡμῖν τὸ φρέαρ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐξ αὐτοῦ ἔπιεν καὶ οἱ υἱοὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ τὰ θρέμματα αὐτοῦ; ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ· πᾶς ὁ πίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος τούτου διψήσει πάλιν· ὃς δ’ ἂν πίῃ ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος οὗ ἐγὼ δώσω αὐτῷ, οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ τὸ ὕδωρ ὃ δώσω αὐτῷ γενήσεται ἐν αὐτῷ πηγὴ ὕδατος ἁλλομένου εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. Λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡ γυνή· κύριε, δός μοι τοῦτο τὸ ὕδωρ, ἵνα μὴ διψῶ μηδὲ διέρχωμαι ἐνθάδε ἀντλεῖν. λέγει αὐτῇ· ὕπαγε φώνησον τὸν ἄνδρα σου καὶ ἐλθὲ ἐνθάδε. ἀπεκρίθη ἡ γυνὴ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· οὐκ ἔχω ἄνδρα. λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· καλῶς εἶπας ὅτι ἄνδρα οὐκ ἔχω· πέντε γὰρ ἄνδρας ἔσχες καὶ νῦν ὃν ἔχεις οὐκ ἔστιν σου ἀνήρ· τοῦτο ἀληθὲς εἴρηκας. Λέγει αὐτῷ ἡ γυνή· κύριε, θεωρῶ ὅτι προφήτης εἶ σύ. οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ προσεκύνησαν· καὶ ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις ἐστὶν ὁ τόπος ὅπου προσκυνεῖν δεῖ. λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· πίστευέ μοι, γύναι, ὅτι ἔρχεται ὥρα ὅτε οὔτε ἐν τῷ ὄρει τούτῳ οὔτε ἐν Ἱεροσολύμοις προσκυνήσετε τῷ πατρί. ὑμεῖς προσκυνεῖτε ὃ οὐκ οἴδατε· ἡμεῖς προσκυνοῦμεν ὃ οἴδαμεν, ὅτι ἡ σωτηρία ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐστίν. ἀλλ’ ἔρχεται ὥρα καὶ νῦν ἐστιν, ὅτε οἱ ἀληθινοὶ προσκυνηταὶ προσκυνήσουσιν τῷ πατρὶ ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ· καὶ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ τοιούτους ζητεῖ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτόν. πνεῦμα ὁ θεός, καὶ τοὺς προσκυνοῦντας αὐτὸν ἐν πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ δεῖ προσκυνεῖν. Λέγει αὐτῷ ἡ γυνή· οἶδα ὅτι Μεσσίας ἔρχεται ὁ λεγόμενος χριστός· ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος, ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν ἅπαντα. λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἐγώ εἰμι, ὁ λαλῶν σοι.

When Jesus then understood that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more students than John (and yet Jesus himself did not baptize but his students), he left Judah and went away again into Galilee. And it was necessary for him to go through Samaria. Then he comes into a city of Samaria called Sychar which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. And Jacob’s well was there. Then Jesus, having grown weary from his journey, sat thus on the well. It was about the sixth hour. A woman from Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me to drink.” For his disciples had gone away into the city in order that they may buy food. Then the Samaritan woman says to him, “How do you, being Jewish, ask of me to drink, a Samaritan woman? For Jews do not have dealings with Samaritans.” Jesus answered and said to her, “if you had known the free gift of God and who it is that says to you, ‘Give me to drink,” you would have asked him and he would have given you living water.

Γλῶσσαι:

  1. πηγή, ῆς, ἡ: well, spring, fountain
  2. ἀντλέω: I draw, draw out

Lord’s Prayer

Οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς·
Πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς·
ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου·
ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου·
γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου,
ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς·
τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον·
καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν,
ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν·
καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν,
ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ.

Matthew 6:9-13

Then offer prayers in this way:
Our father who is in heaven,
Let your name be hallowed.
Let your kingdom come.
Let your will be done,
As in heaven, also on earth.
Give us this day our daily bread,
And forgive us our debts,
As we also have forgiven our debtors.
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.

Vocabulary (Γλῶσσαι)

  1. ἄρτος, -ου, ὁ: bread
  2. ἐπιούσιος, -ου, ὁ (traditional): daily
  3. ἐπιούσιος, -ου, ὁ (literal): supersubstantial, superessential, supernatural
  4. δὸς (2nd sg aor imperat act of δίδωμι): give
  5. ἄφες (2nd sg aor imperat act of ἀφίημι): forgive
  6. ὀφείλημα, ὀφειλήματος, τό: debt
  7. ὀφειλέτης, -ου, ὁ: debtor
  8. ἤνεγκα (first aorist of φέρω): I carried
  9. εἰσενέγκῃς (εἴς + ἤνεγκα): carry into, lead into
  10. πειρασμός, -οῦ, ὁ: temptation
  11. ῥῦσαι (2nd sg aor imperat mid of ῥύομαι): draw to oneself, deliver
  12. πονηρός, -ᾱ, όν (substantive use): evil
  13. πονηρός, -ᾱ, όν (literal meaning): pain-ridden

John testifies again about Jesus

Μετὰ ταῦτα ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν γῆν καὶ ἐκεῖ διέτριβεν μετ’ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐβάπτιζεν. Ἦν δὲ καὶ ὁ Ἰωάννης βαπτίζων ἐν Αἰνὼν ἐγγὺς τοῦ Σαλείμ, ὅτι ὕδατα πολλὰ ἦν ἐκεῖ, καὶ παρεγίνοντο καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο· οὔπω γὰρ ἦν βεβλημένος εἰς τὴν φυλακὴν ὁ Ἰωάννης. Ἐγένετο οὖν ζήτησις ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν Ἰωάννου μετὰ Ἰουδαίου περὶ καθαρισμοῦ. καὶ ἦλθον πρὸς τὸν Ἰωάννην καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· ῥαββί, ὃς ἦν μετὰ σοῦ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, ᾧ σὺ μεμαρτύρηκας, ἴδε οὗτος βαπτίζει καὶ πάντες ἔρχονται πρὸς αὐτόν. Ἀπεκρίθη Ἰωάννης καὶ εἶπεν· οὐ δύναται ἄνθρωπος λαμβάνειν οὐδὲ ἓν ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ δεδομένον αὐτῷ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. αὐτοὶ ὑμεῖς μοι μαρτυρεῖτε ὅτι εἶπον [ὅτι] οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγὼ ὁ χριστός, ἀλλ’ ὅτι ἀπεσταλμένος εἰμὶ ἔμπροσθεν ἐκείνου. ὁ ἔχων τὴν νύμφην νυμφίος ἐστίν· ὁ δὲ φίλος τοῦ νυμφίου ὁ ἑστηκὼς καὶ ἀκούων αὐτοῦ χαρᾷ χαίρει διὰ τὴν φωνὴν τοῦ νυμφίου. αὕτη οὖν ἡ χαρὰ ἡ ἐμὴ πεπλήρωται. ἐκεῖνον δεῖ αὐξάνειν, ἐμὲ δὲ ἐλαττοῦσθαι. Ὁ ἄνωθεν ἐρχόμενος ἐπάνω πάντων ἐστίν· ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐκ τῆς γῆς ἐστιν καὶ ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαλεῖ. ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐρχόμενος [ἐπάνω πάντων ἐστίν]· ὃ ἑώρακεν καὶ ἤκουσεν τοῦτο μαρτυρεῖ, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν αὐτοῦ οὐδεὶς λαμβάνει. ὁ λαβὼν αὐτοῦ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἐσφράγισεν ὅτι ὁ θεὸς ἀληθής ἐστιν. ὃν γὰρ ἀπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὰ ῥήματα τοῦ θεοῦ λαλεῖ, οὐ γὰρ ἐκ μέτρου δίδωσιν τὸ πνεῦμα. ὁ πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ τὸν υἱὸν καὶ πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ. ὁ πιστεύων εἰς τὸν υἱὸν ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον· ὁ δὲ ἀπειθῶν τῷ υἱῷ οὐκ ὄψεται ζωήν, ἀλλ’ ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ θεοῦ μένει ἐπ’ αὐτόν.

After this, Jesus and his disciples came into the Jewish land, and stayed there with them and baptized. And John also was baptizing in Ennon near Salim, since there was much water there; and they came and were baptized. For John had not yet been thrown into prison. Then a controversy arose between the students of John and the Jews concerning purification. And they came to John and said to him, “Rabbi, the one who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you have testified, behold, this man is baptizing and all are coming to him.” John answered and said, “No man can receive anything unless it is given to him from heaven. You yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him. He who has the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom who stands and listens to him rejoices with gladness on account of the voice of the bridegroom. This therefore completes my joy. He must increase, but I must decrease. He that comes from above is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaks. He who comes from heaven is above all. And what he has seen and heard, that he testifies, and no one receives his testimony. He who receives his testimony has set to his seal that God is true. For he whom God sent speaks the words of God, for God does not give the spirit by measure. The Father loves the Son, and he has given all things into his hand. He who believes in the Son has eternal life; he who disobeys the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains upon him.

Γλῶσσαι:

  1. οὔπω: (adv) not yet
  2. καθαρισμός, -οῦ, ὁ: cleansing, purification
  3. νύμφη, -ης, ἡ: bride
  4. νυμφίος, -ου, ὁ: bride groom
  5. ἐπάνω: (prep. + gen., or adv.) above