Plato’s Republic (Book 1)

First discussion (Cephalus & Polemarchus):

Proposition: (331e) Justice is giving to each man his due.

Corollary: (332d) Justice is an art that benefits friends and injuries enemies.

Second discussion (Thrasymachus):

Proposition: (338c) Justice is simply the interest of the stronger.

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Jesus cleanses the temple

Καὶ ἐγγὺς ἦν τὸ πάσχα τῶν Ἰουδαίων, καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ὁ Ἰησοῦς. Καὶ εὗρεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τοὺς πωλοῦντας βόας καὶ πρόβατα καὶ περιστερὰς καὶ τοὺς κερματιστὰς καθημένους, καὶ ποιήσας φραγέλλιον ἐκ σχοινίων πάντας ἐξέβαλεν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ τά τε πρόβατα καὶ τοὺς βόας, καὶ τῶν κολλυβιστῶν ἐξέχεεν τὸ κέρμα καὶ τὰς τραπέζας ἀνέτρεψεν, καὶ τοῖς τὰς περιστερὰς πωλοῦσιν εἶπεν· ἄρατε ταῦτα ἐντεῦθεν, μὴ ποιεῖτε τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου οἶκον ἐμπορίου. ἐμνήσθησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι γεγραμμένον ἐστίν· ὁ ζῆλος τοῦ οἴκου σου καταφάγεταί με.* Ἀπεκρίθησαν οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· τί σημεῖον δεικνύεις ἡμῖν ὅτι ταῦτα ποιεῖς; ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον καὶ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερῶ αὐτόν. εἶπαν οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· τεσσεράκοντα καὶ ἓξ ἔτεσιν οἰκοδομήθη ὁ ναὸς οὗτος, καὶ σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν; ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ. ὅτε οὖν ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἐμνήσθησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι τοῦτο ἔλεγεν, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν τῇ γραφῇ καὶ τῷ λόγῳ ὃν εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς.

And it was near the Passover feast of the Jews, and Jesus walked up to Jerusalem. And he found in the temple those who were selling oxen and sheep and doves, and the money-changers sitting down, and making a lash out of cords he cast them all out of the temple, the sheep also and the oxen, and poured out the coin of the money-changers and overturned the tables, and to those who were selling doves, he said, “Take these things hence, and make not the house of my Father a house of traffic.” His disciples remembered that it was written: “The zeal of your house will consume me.” Then the Jews answered and said to him: “What sign do you show us, since you do these things?” Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.” Then the Jews said, “This temple was in building six and forty years, and you will raise it in three days?” But he was speaking about the temple of his body. Therefore, when he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and believed in the scripture and word which Jesus spoke.

ΓΛῶσσαι:

  1. ἐγγὺς: (adv) near
  2. τὸ πάσχα: Passover feast
  3. τεσσαράκοντα: forty
  4. ἐγείρω: raise (up)
  5. νεκρός, ά, όν: dead, a corpse

The wedding at Cana

Καὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ γάμος ἐγένετο ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας, καὶ ἦν ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐκεῖ· ἐκλήθη δὲ καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν γάμον. καὶ ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου λέγει ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πρὸς αὐτόν· οἶνον οὐκ ἔχουσιν. [καὶ] λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, γύναι; οὔπω ἥκει ἡ ὥρα μου. λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς διακόνοις· ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν ποιήσατε. ἦσαν δὲ ἐκεῖ λίθιναι ὑδρίαι ἓξ κατὰ τὸν καθαρισμὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων κείμεναι, χωροῦσαι ἀνὰ μετρητὰς δύο ἢ τρεῖς. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· γεμίσατε τὰς ὑδρίας ὕδατος. καὶ ἐγέμισαν αὐτὰς ἕως ἄνω. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἀντλήσατε νῦν καὶ φέρετε τῷ ἀρχιτρικλίνῳ· οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν. ὡς δὲ ἐγεύσατο ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος τὸ ὕδωρ οἶνον γεγενημένον καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει πόθεν ἐστίν, οἱ δὲ διάκονοι ᾔδεισαν οἱ ἠντληκότες τὸ ὕδωρ, φωνεῖ τὸν νυμφίον ὁ ἀρχιτρίκλινος καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· πᾶς ἄνθρωπος πρῶτον τὸν καλὸν οἶνον τίθησιν καὶ ὅταν μεθυσθῶσιν τὸν ἐλάσσω· σὺ τετήρηκας τὸν καλὸν οἶνον ἕως ἄρτι. Ταύτην ἐποίησεν ἀρχὴν τῶν σημείων ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν Κανὰ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἐφανέρωσεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. Μετὰ τοῦτο κατέβη εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ αὐτὸς καὶ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ [αὐτοῦ] καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐκεῖ ἔμειναν οὐ πολλὰς ἡμέρας.

And on the third day there was a wedding in Cana of Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. And both Jesus and his disciples were invited to the wedding. And since there was need of wine, the mother of Jesus says to him, “they do not have wine.” And Jesus says to her, “Woman, what is that to me and you? My hour has not yet come.” His mother says to the servants, “Do what he tells you.” And lying there were water pots made of stone, according to the manner of purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. Jesus says to them, “Fill the water pots with water”. And they filled them up to the brim. And he says to them, “Now draw them out and carry them to the master of the feast.” And they carried them. And as the master of the feast tasted the water, it became wine, and he did not know from where it was, although the waiters who had drawn the water knew; the master of the feast summoned the bridegroom. And he says to him, “Every man at first sets forth good wine, and when men are drunk, then that which is worse. You have kept the good wine until just now.” Jesus did this first of signs in Cana of Galilee, and made clear his glory, and his disciples believed in him. After this he went down to Capernaum, he and his mother and brothers and disciples, and remained there not many days.

Γλῶσσαι:

  1. ὑστερέω: I lack, fall short, suffer need
  2. οἶνος, -ου, ὁ: wine
  3. οὔπω (adv) not yet
  4. ἥκω: I have come, am present
  5. διάκονος, ου, ὁ, ἡ: waiter, servant
  6. γεμίζω: I fill, load
  7. μεθύσκω: I make drunk
  8. ἐλάσσων, ον: less, smaller, inferior

Jesus calls Philip and Nathaniel

Τῇ ἐπαύριον ἠθέλησεν ἐξελθεῖν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν καὶ εὑρίσκει Φίλιππον. καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἀκολούθει μοι. ἦν δὲ ὁ Φίλιππος ἀπὸ Βηθσαϊδά, ἐκ τῆς πόλεως Ἀνδρέου καὶ Πέτρου. εὑρίσκει Φίλιππος τὸν Ναθαναὴλ καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· ὃν ἔγραψεν Μωϋσῆς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ οἱ προφῆται εὑρήκαμεν, Ἰησοῦν υἱὸν τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἀπὸ Ναζαρέτ. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ναθαναήλ· ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ δύναταί τι ἀγαθὸν εἶναι; λέγει αὐτῷ [ὁ] Φίλιππος· ἔρχου καὶ ἴδε. Εἶδεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Ναθαναὴλ ἐρχόμενον πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει περὶ αὐτοῦ· ἴδε ἀληθῶς Ἰσραηλίτης ἐν ᾧ δόλος οὐκ ἔστιν. λέγει αὐτῷ Ναθαναήλ· πόθεν με γινώσκεις; ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· πρὸ τοῦ σε Φίλιππον φωνῆσαι ὄντα ὑπὸ τὴν συκῆν εἶδόν σε. ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ναθαναήλ· ῥαββί, σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, σὺ βασιλεὺς εἶ τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· ὅτι εἶπόν σοι ὅτι εἶδόν σε ὑποκάτω τῆς συκῆς, πιστεύεις; μείζω τούτων ὄψῃ. καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὄψεσθε τὸν οὐρανὸν* ἀνεῳγότα καὶ τοὺς ἀγγέλους τοῦ θεοῦ ἀναβαίνοντας καὶ καταβαίνοντας* ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.

On the next day he wished to go out into Galilee and find Philip. And Jesus said to him, “Follow me.” And Philip was from Bethsaida, from the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip finds Nathaniel and says to him, “We have found him of whom Moses and the prophets wrote in the law, Jesus the son of Joseph from Nazareth.” And Nathaniel said to him, “What good can come from Nazareth?” Philip says to him, “Come and see.” Jesus saw Nathaniel coming toward him and says concerning him, “Behold, an Israelite in whom there is not any deceit.” Nathaniel says to him, “From where do you know me?” Jesus answered and said to him, “Before Philip summoned you, I saw you under the fig tree.” Nathaniel answered him, “Rabbi, you are the son of God, you are the king of Israel.” Jesus answered and said to him, “Since I said to you that I saw you underneath the fig tree, you believe? You shall see greater things than these.” And he says to him, “Amen, amen, I say to you, you shall see the heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the son of Man.”

Γλῶσσαι

  1. ὑποκάτω (adv) underneath

“We have found the Messiah”

Τῇ ἐπαύριον πάλιν εἱστήκει ὁ Ἰωάννης καὶ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ δύο καὶ ἐμβλέψας τῷ Ἰησοῦ περιπατοῦντι λέγει· ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. καὶ ἤκουσαν οἱ δύο μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος καὶ ἠκολούθησαν τῷ Ἰησοῦ. στραφεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ θεασάμενος αὐτοὺς ἀκολουθοῦντας λέγει αὐτοῖς· τί ζητεῖτε; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· ῥαββί, ὃ λέγεται μεθερμηνευόμενον διδάσκαλε, ποῦ μένεις; λέγει αὐτοῖς· ἔρχεσθε καὶ ὄψεσθε. ἦλθαν οὖν καὶ εἶδαν ποῦ μένει καὶ παρ’ αὐτῷ ἔμειναν τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην· ὥρα ἦν ὡς δεκάτη. Ἦν Ἀνδρέας ὁ ἀδελφὸς Σίμωνος Πέτρου εἷς ἐκ τῶν δύο τῶν ἀκουσάντων παρὰ Ἰωάννου καὶ ἀκολουθησάντων αὐτῷ· εὑρίσκει οὗτος πρῶτον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν ἴδιον Σίμωνα καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ· εὑρήκαμεν τὸν Μεσσίαν, ὅ ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον χριστός. ἤγαγεν αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν. ἐμβλέψας αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν· σὺ εἶ Σίμων ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωάννου, σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς, ὃ ἑρμηνεύεται Πέτρος.

The next day again John stood, and two of his disciples, and beholding Jesus walking, said, “Behold, the Lamb of God.” And the two disciples listened to him speaking and followed Jesus. And Jesus turning, and beholding his followers, says to them, “What are you seeking?”And they said to him, “Rabbi,”—which is to say, being interpreted, Master—”where do you dwell?” He says to them, “Come and you shall see.” Then they came and saw where he dwelled and remained with him that day; it was now about the tenth hour. Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who had heard of John, and followed him. First he finds his own brother Simon and says to him, “We have found the Messiah (which is, being interpreted, the Christ).” He led him to Jesus. Looking upon him, Jesus said, “You are Simon, the son of Jona. You will be called Cephas (which being interpreted is Peter).”

Γλῶσσαι

  1. ἀκολουθέω: accompany, attend, follow
  2. στραφεὶς: from στρέφω: (pass. or mid.) to turn oneself
  3. παρά + gen.: from, from the side of
  4. ἐμβλέπω: look into, look upon
  5. ἑρμηνεύω: translate, interpret
  6. ἐπαύριον (adv) tomorrow

John testifies about Jesus

Τῇ ἐπαύριον βλέπει τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐρχόμενον πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει· ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου. οὗτός ἐστιν ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εἶπον· ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεται ἀνὴρ ὃς ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν. κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν, ἀλλ’ ἵνα φανερωθῇ τῷ Ἰσραὴλ διὰ τοῦτο ἦλθον ἐγὼ ἐν ὕδατι βαπτίζων. Καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης λέγων ὅτι τεθέαμαι τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡς περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν. κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν, ἀλλ’ ὁ πέμψας με βαπτίζειν ἐν ὕδατι ἐκεῖνός μοι εἶπεν· ἐφ’ ὃν ἂν ἴδῃς τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον καὶ μένον ἐπ’ αὐτόν, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. κἀγὼ ἑώρακα καὶ μεμαρτύρηκα ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ.

The next day he sees Jesus coming toward him and says, “Behold the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I spoke, ‘The man who comes after me ranks before me, since he was before me.’ I also did not know him, but I came baptizing in water on account of this, in order that he may appear to Israel.” And John bore witness, saying, “I have seen the Spirit coming down, as a dove from Heaven, and he remained upon him. And I also did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize in water, said to me, ‘Upon he whom you saw the spirit descend, and remain upon, this is he who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.’ And I have seen and I have testified that this man is the Son of God.”

John is questioned

Καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Ἰωάννου, ὅτε ἀπέστειλαν [πρὸς αὐτὸν] οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐξ Ἱεροσολύμων ἱερεῖς καὶ Λευίτας ἵνα ἐρωτήσωσιν αὐτόν· σὺ τίς εἶ; καὶ ὡμολόγησεν καὶ οὐκ ἠρνήσατο, καὶ ὡμολόγησεν ὅτι ἐγὼ οὐκ εἰμὶ ὁ χριστός. καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτόν· τί οὖν; σὺ Ἠλίας εἶ; καὶ λέγει· οὐκ εἰμί. ὁ προφήτης εἶ σύ; καὶ ἀπεκρίθη· οὔ. εἶπαν οὖν αὐτῷ· τίς εἶ; ἵνα ἀπόκρισιν δῶμεν τοῖς πέμψασιν ἡμᾶς· τί λέγεις περὶ σεαυτοῦ; ἔφη· ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ·* εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου,* καθὼς εἶπεν Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης. Καὶ ἀπεσταλμένοι ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων. καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· τί οὖν βαπτίζεις εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς οὐδὲ Ἠλίας οὐδὲ ὁ προφήτης; ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰωάννης λέγων· ἐγὼ βαπτίζω ἐν ὕδατι· μέσος ὑμῶν ἕστηκεν ὃν ὑμεῖς οὐκ οἴδατε, ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος, οὗ οὐκ εἰμὶ [ἐγὼ] ἄξιος ἵνα λύσω αὐτοῦ τὸν ἱμάντα τοῦ ὑποδήματος. ταῦτα ἐν Βηθανίᾳ ἐγένετο πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, ὅπου ἦν ὁ Ἰωάννης βαπτίζων.

And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent forth to him, out of Jerusalem, the priests and the Levites, so that they may ask him, “Who are you?” And he confessed, and did not deny, and he confessed, “I am not the Christ”. And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” And he said, “I am not.” “Are you the prophet?” And he answered, “No.” Therefore they said to him, “Who are you? so that we may give an answer to those who sent us? what do you say concerning yourself?” He said, “I am the voice of one crying in the desert: make straight the way of the Lord. As said the prophet Isaiah.” And those who were sent were from the Pharisees. And they asked him and said to him, “Then why do you baptize if you are neither Christ nor the prophet Elijah?” John answered them saying, “I baptize in water; but there has stood one in the midst of you, whom you know not. Of he who comes after me, I am not worthy to loosen the strap of his sandal.” These things happened in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing.

Γλῶσσαι

  1. ὅτε: (rel. adv.) when
  2. ἀπέστειλαν: from ἀποστέλλω (3rd pl aor act ind): to send forth, send away
  3. ὡμολόγησεν (from ὁμολογέω) (+ dat.) agree with,
  4. ὁμολογέω + compl. inf. or indir. disc. + infin.: agree, confess, promise
  5. ἠρνήσατο: (from ἀρνέομαι) I deny, repudiate
  6. ἀπόκρισις, -εως, ἡ: an answer, reply
  7. εὐθύνω: make straight, guide, steer

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